Venera: The Soviet Exploration of Venus

The Soviet Venera program, from 1961 to 1985, is one of the largest efforts ever undertaken to study another planet. The fundamentals of interplanetary spacecraft design and remote sensing were first realized in the Venera missions. Successes included 3 atmospheric probes, 10 landings, 4 orbiters, 11 flybys or impacts, and 2 balloon probes in the clouds. Much of what is known today about Venus was discovered by these missions.

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Venera-1 Venera-1: Inventing The Interplanetary Spacecraft (1957-1965) Venera-4 Venera-4: Plumbing The Atmosphere (1967-1972) Venera-9 Venera-9: Landers With Cameras (1975)
Venera-13 Venera-13: Drilling Into The Surface of Venus (1978-1981) Venera-15 Venera-15: Radar Observation Of Venus (1983) Venera-Halley Missions Venera-Halley (VeGa): Aerostats In The Clouds (1984)
Evpatoriia Antenna Soviet Telemetry Systems Venera-9 Camera Remote Imaging Systems Molniia Rocket Interplanetary Propulsion
CH-band IR Spectrometer Remote Scientific Sensors Spacecraft Pennants Spacecraft Pennants Venus Launches To Venus
First Panoramas of the Surface of Venus Bibliography Venera-13 Panorama Soviet Space Images M.V. Keldysh Biographies

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Copyright © 2003,2004 Don P. Mitchell. All rights reserved.

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